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    Thermal Conversion Factors
    Fuel and Sector 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990
    Coal Produced (BTU per pound)1 12,875 12,865 12,849 12,818 12,908 12,801 12,848 12,872 12,887 12,951
    Coal Consumed (Million BTU per short ton)
    Residential and Commericial 24.8822 24.8822 24.9309 25.1056 24.9980 24.9838 24.9971 25.1416 25.1241 25.0865
    Non-Utility Industrial 24.8612 24.8612 24.9465 25.0991 25.0858 25.0508 25.1026 25.1956 25.1646 25.0692
    Electric Utilities 25.4030 25.2053 25.1077 25.1947 25.4867 25.5561 25.6333 25.6602 25.5352 25.4274
    Natural Gas Produced (BTU per cubic foot)2 1,027 1,031 1,026 1,027 1,027 1,028 1,027 1,030 1,030 1,031
    Natural Gas Consumed (Thousand BTU per cubic foot) 1.038 1.043 1.044 1.039 1.031 1.038 1.044 1.039 1.042 1.042
    Residential 1.037 1.042 1.044 1.038 1.031 1.038 1.045 1.038 1.042 1.042
    Commerical 1.037 1.042 1.044 1.038 1.031 1.038 1.045 1.038 1.042 1.042
    Other Industrial 1.037 1.042 1.044 1.038 1.031 1.038 1.045 1.038 1.042 1.042
    Electric Utility 1.055 1.049 1.048 1.057 1.031 1.037 1.038 1.050 1.044 1.041
    Crude Oil Produced (Million BTU per barrel)3 5.800 5.800 5.800 5.800 5.800 5.800 5.800 5.800 5.800 5.800
    Petroleum Products Consumed (Million BTU per barrel)4
    Distillate Fuel Oil Consumed by Electric Plants 5.825 5.825 5.825 5.825 5.825 5.825 5.825 5.825 5.825 5.825
    Fossil-fuel Steam-electric Plants
    Heat Rate, Fossil-fueled Steam Electric Plants (Btu/kWhr)5 10,346 10,346 10,357 10,340 10,312 10,316 10,309 10,342 10,436 10,402
    Energy Conversion Efficiency, Fossil-fueled Steam Electric Plant6 33.0% 33.0% 32.9% 33.0% 33.1% 33.1% 33.1% 33.0% 32.7% 32.8%
    Heat Rate, Fossil-fueled Nuclear Plants (Btu/kWhr)5 10,623 10,623 10,623 10,623 10,658 10,676 10,682 10,678 10,740 10,680
    Electricity Losses-to-Sales Ratio7 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3

    Notes:

  • Consumed fuel estimates are specific to Virginia.
  • Appendix C, State Energy Data Report, EIA
  • 1 Energy content of coal produced for electric utilities. EIA, Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants, Table 16
  • 2 U.S. production average. Source: EIA, Monthly Energy Review, Table A6
  • 3 U.S. production average. Source: EIA, Monthly Energy Review, Table A2. 1 barrel = 42 U.S. gallons
  • 4 U.S. average. Source: EIA, Monthly Energy Review, Appendix A, Section 4, Table A1
  • 5 U.S. average. EIA, Monthly Energy Review, Table A6.
  • 6 Efficiencies calculated using conversion factor: 1 kilowatthour = 3,412 Btu. 1 megawatthour = 1000 kilowatthours
  • 7 U.S. estimate. EIA, State Energy Data Report, Appendix A, Section 6

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